Abstract: This paper will look at NFL expansion and will look at in depth roles of owners, players, and the community. This paper will outline the power structure of the NFL, especially in regards to relocation of teams and expansion of the league. There are some proposals on the floor and we will dive into both the pros and cons of these proposals.
Breakdown theory through Chicago and Tottenham
On August 4th, 2011, the metropolitan police of Tottenham shot and killed a young man by the name of Mark Duggan. This one act by the police unleashed an outbreak of riots throughout the city and some say even led to the London riots of 2011. When we dive deeper into this incident, we can see that the shooting of Duggan played a minor role in the riots that ran rampant throughout Tottenham. The Tottenham riots give us a clearer picture of underlying grievances that can lead to incidents such as these. Understanding the pre-existing conditions and the responses is crucial in learning how to avoid riots like this one.
To get better understanding of how a lack of resources can lead to rioting we should look into other riots. One riot is the Chicago riots of 1968 that highlights breakdown theory as its most prevalent explanation. In 1968, Chicago had building tensions between the ghetto population and the displaced white population. As the ghetto population of Chicago rose, there was a flight of the white population from the inner city. The issue of open housing was becoming bigger and bigger because the black population could not be contained within the structures that were already there. This influx of the black population was due to the civil rights movements in the South. The main players in the housing were Martin Luther King and Mayor Daley. They were on opposite ends of the spectrum when it came to the issue of public housing. What’s interesting to note is that MLK, was the leader of these movements so Daley was stuck between a rock and a hard place when it came to dealing with public housing. With these tensions continuing to build, all that was left was a triggering event. Then came the assassination of MLK. Immediately following the shooting, you had highschool kids starting riots in the streets. This was a generation who believed they could change something because those were the ideas that were prevalent at the time. The older generations were used to being oppressed and discriminated against. The responses were immediate. You had the National Guard come in and calm the situation. They knew exactly who to focus on when it came to who the rioters were. After the riot had been taken care of, there was a creation of a buffer zone and some would say it improved riot control procedures. Looking at the 1992 riots, the improved riot control procedures did seem to help. Now with some background we can look at Tottenham and see how breakdown theory can be used as its explanation as well.
Using breakdown theory can help us determine causes and what we should actually be focusing on when it comes to avoiding riots. In Tottenham, there had been growing tensions between the police department and the community. In the video we watched, it didn’t seem as if the riots were due to a race issue but digging deeper, we find the fact that Duggan was an African American male plays a major role. There were also allegations made against Duggan by the police department such as Duggan being a drug dealer and Duggan being one of the head leaders of a major gang in Tottenham. The story goes that Duggan was in a taxi and had jumped out as a police vehicle pulled up and they exchanged some fire and was eventually arrested. The interesting part of this story is that, apparently he had been shot after he was already pinned by the cops and, to the community that was the evidence that needed an answer. Once the court decided not to not convict the policemen due to the fact it was a “lawful killing”, the riots broke out. Throughout the riot, many police officers thought their lives were at risk because they were major players in the incident. Police officers that had nothing to do with the shooting were getting bricks and bottles being thrown at them. Inexperienced officers were out on the streets trying to quell the situation to no effect. The biggest revelation was that this department did not have adequate resources to handle a situation like this. Instead of focusing on the racial and class segregation, the hatred was directed towards the police. It wasn’t shooting or the trial as much as the media would portray it to be but the grievances between the community and the police department over years of confrontations. If Tottenham could take a page out of Chicago’s playbook, they would take their riot procedures. It does raise the question, what is more important? The practices they are being taught or how they execute riot procedures?
In conclusion, Tottenham and Chicago both show us a clear example of breakdown theory and how riots can and should be portrayed. The underlying grievances are the most important factors when considering what causes a riot and understanding that they are different from triggering events. Chicago and Tottenham show us race and class are very prevalent issues not just in the United States but in other countries as well. What is important to note is the handling of both. In one hand we have Chicago and its deployment of the national guard and on the other hand we have Tottenham where they deployed unexperienced policemen to calm the riot. Riot procedures in both countries are significantly different. We get to see how a riot should be handled and how a riot should not be handled. If we focus more on the underlying issues than maybe, just maybe, we can avoid riots.
Once flooded with Hispanic culture and liveliness, Highland Park has slowly become a more contemporary neighborhood with a more progressive group moving in. To be more precise, hipsters. Since 2008 there has been a shift in who is coming in and who is leaving Highland Park. The financial crisis that hit the area allowed for many smaller businesses to opening. In other words, the crisis opened up the gates for hipster mania, usually of the middle to upper class sort. Many interviews done within the area have brought up the appearance of many new white neighbors and rent spikes that don’t allow for families that have a full time job to keep their homes. These new shops that are opening up are raising their prices that aren’t allowing for the Latino families to keep up with. They are allowed to do this by adding slogans to their food like “Organic, Raw, Natural” This is causing an influx of more upper-middle class into the business district of Highland Park and an exodus of Latino families. Just like our readings from “Driven From New Orleans”, there is a push for wealthier residents to come into the neighborhoods while there is a push out against the lower class residents. Begging the question, “where do we go?”
In New Orleans, we saw the new affordable housing homes not being affordable because the money they put into the new homes raised the prices of the newly built homes. Unlike Dudley Street, where people got to be involved with the designs of the new homes, both New Orleans and highland Park are being forced out by high rent and new homes. In the case of Highland Park, however, its not a complete tear down of homes but a more gradual increase of rent driving people out. The property owners know that there is a spike in small businesses like Berry Bowl that have $10 juices, to help them increase the rent. They understand there is a change within the city that is happening very slowly and discreetly amongst the business owners and property owners.
Journalists have tabbed Highland Park the new “Ground Zero” for gentrification in the United States. There have been white people blaming Hispanic people for institutional racism because they own stores. You can see the irony in that. There has also been an explosion in the music industry within the neighborhood. More and more music stores and bands are being created everyday. Some was quoted, “When I moved in 2001, there was nothing around here. Now there’s all these record stores, eateries and bars. My bands were always other places” As more money floods into the city, the more talent comes flowing in. Highland has become a music hub for neighboring cities as well.
There are many different opinions on whether or not the gentrification of Highland is a good or bad thing. Yes gentrification seems inherently a bad thing and as I write this I feel guilty for saying this but it is bringing money in the city. I now feel like Satan himself after I wrote that. I think if you can do it with respect to the people who already live in the neighborhood of Highland, everyone can benefit. Are $9 juice shops going to help my comment? Is gentrification going to happen regardless? Yes. Trying to see the light in a dark situation is hard.
Bennett, Sarah. “HIGHLAND PARK GETS THE OFFICIAL STAMP OF GENTRIFICATION: A COLD-PRESSED JUICERY.” LA Weekly. N.p., 17 Feb. 2015. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.
Bogado, Aura. “Dispatch from Highland Park: Gentrification, Displacement and the Disappearance of Latino Businesses.” Colorlines. N.p., 20 Jan. 2015. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.
Lin, Jan. “Northeast Los Angeles Gentrification in Comparative and Historical Context.” KCET. N.p., 4 June 2015. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.
Liu, Kevin. “The Occidental Weekly.” : Berry Bowl, Occidental Complicit in Gentrification. N.p., 22 Sept. 2015. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.
Roberts, Randall. “LA’s Highland Park a Hub of Young Artists, Labels and Vinyl Stores.” South China Morning Post. N.p., 19 Oct. 2015. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.
Not many cities get an opportunity to get a chance to put in a bid for their country. Boston was one of the lucky few who the Unites States Olympic Committee decided they were going to potentially make a bid with. What they found out was that Boston could not generate enough support for the Olympics there. The people who played a big part in this were the people who actually knew the repercussions of what the Olympics would mean and nonprofits. The residents of Boston used nonprofits as a tool to get garner support from other residents. Nonprofits help focus the concerns of the knowledgeable to the unaware.
Winning Against a Stacked Deck. Possible? Yes.
In a town not too far away, a young rebellious teen moved into a neighborhood where a conservative pastor was judge, jury, and executioner. There none of this and none of that on his watch. The young teen heard there was no dancing or music permitted within the town. With the whole town thinking he was crazy he decided to go against the grain, you could say the “deck was stacked against him”. He hosted a dance party that was the best dance party anyone had ever seen. He came, he conquered, he was Kevin Bacon. We can all kind of relate to this young man by the terrible rules and regulations that are not in our favor when it comes to urban development. Try making your voice heard by walking into your neighborhood developer. You can’t. We would all love an explanation for that and that my friends is the elite theory. This elite theory basically tells us that there is a very interconnected and well organized group of wealthy individuals, that are more than likely business owners, that control the decisions that are being made within the community, especially when it comes to big money projects. Yes, it seems bleak competing against money, especially with the little we have but there is hope. Just ask Emaleigh Doley, one of the founders of GUCDC (Germantown United Community Development Corporation). Her mission is to revitalize and maintain local business. Doley says, “There is a larger middle class presence than some may realize”. Her plan is to introduce people to amenities that are already in town instead of letting those business get bought out. There is a lot of money in Germantown but that money leaves for better opportunities and then when that happens the city, or in our case, wealthy private business owners, come in and build something that does little to nothing for the community as a whole. Doley is partnering with the American Planning Association who will offer advice for revitalization within the community. Who says you need money to make a change and fight back against big business. If this isn’t enough, ask the residents of Derbyshire who brought back to life a shop that had been closed for close to 20 years. People in the community came together and raised around $45,000. The residents realized that when local shops like this leave these villages “become soulless commuter communities”. Richard Moules, who helped launch the community shop, are having volunteers work and through that they have created a loyal customer base within the community.
“Community shops are no longer just seen as a solution for communities wishing to replace like-for-like retail services in rural areas when they are lost. Communities are also looking to community-ownership to stimulate social and community activity and to address issues such as social isolation and loneliness. For this reason, we see a bright future for community shops.”
So what’s deck of money and big business owners to a group of well-organized and determined group of folks within the community? Nothing but a house of cards.
Birch, Simon. “How Community Shops Are Beating Big Business.” The Gaurdian. N.p., 18 July 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
Hagen, Carrie. “Community Organizer Brings Passion to Promoting Germantown Businesses.” Newsworks.org. Newsworks, 2 Sept. 2015. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.